Frequently Asked Questions

I’ve answered over 16000 questions in the site comments over the last four years, so I have a very good idea of what people ask the most often. Here you’ll find detailed answers to the most frequently asked questions.

Read through the list to see if you can find what you’re looking for then click the link. Most will be jump links to sections below, some will be links to other pages on the site. I wouldn’t recommend you try and read it all, nor is it necessary to do so.

If you still can’t find your answer, please feel free to ask in the comments, which are active on all of the site guide posts. I’m always updating and adding to this page.


‘LEANGAINS GUIDE’ and ‘COMPLETE SET-UP GUIDE’: What’s the difference?
INITIAL CALCULATIONS: Do these macros I calculated look right?
TIMING vs MACROS vs CALORIES vs SUPPLEMENTS: What’s most important?
THE TOP 10 NUTRITION MYTHS perpetuated by the media.

Regarding food specifics:

CARB SOURCES: Can I eat refined carbs, sugar?
WATER: How much should I be drinking?
DIET SODA: Can I drink it during a morning fast? What about tea or coffee?
ALCOHOL: Is it banned on this diet?
SALT: Is high salt intake a concern?
PROTEIN POWDER: Is it OK to use?
Can eating TOO MUCH PROTEIN be bad for you?

Hunger related:

SNACKING: Can I eat between meals?
TOO FULL: As I am on a cut is it detrimental to eat less?
I OVERATE yesterday, should I adjust the weekly calorie balance?

Leangains Specific:

HUNGER PROBLEMS: Is there anything I can do?
HUNGER FEARS: Will I feel hungry in the mornings if I skip breakfast?
SLEEP: Why is it important?
AFTERNOON NAPS: Will interrupted sleep affect fat loss?
MEAL FREQUENCY: Can I eat 4 meals instead of 2 or 3?
TIMING MISTAKES: I ate lunch a little later today, should I adjust the fasting window?
IRREGULAR SCHEDULE: How do I go about setting up meal timing and training?


SUPPLEMENTS: What do you think about them?
CREATINE: Types, Dosing and Timing
BCAAs: Should I count them towards my total protein intake target for the day?


EATING OUT: Any tips?
FEEL WEAK: I’m feeling unusually run down. What’s up with me?
CHEAT DAYS: Do you recommend them?
Why aren’t you a fan of MACRO CALCULATORS?
What is the best MACRO RATIO?
How quickly can I expect RESULTS?
Should I CUT or SLOW-BULK?
PALEO: I follow the Paleo diet. What should I do about carb sources?
FIBER: How much do I need?
Why do sudden changes in weight happen?

Diet Questions

‘LEANGAINS SET-UP GUIDE’ and ‘COMPLETE SET-UP GUIDE’: What’s the difference?

The Leangains guide is for people that just want a well structured system to follow, without having to think any deeper about the fundamentals of why it works. The Complete Set-up Guide will teach you the principles of diet set-up and training, so you can understand the true order of importance for the different factors that make up solid nutrition and training programs, adjust things for yourself, and become truly independent. They are not mutually exclusive, the latter explains why the former works, but just removes the nutrient timing limitations by giving you the broader principles.

• The Leangains Guide
• The Complete Guide To Setting Up Your Diet

Do these macros I calculated look right?

This is a question that applies equally to calorie calculations. I’ve been asked a version of this over 2000 times in the comments, and it became so overwhelming I had to decline commenting for people and delete them to stem the floods of similar questions.

Your calculations could be right, but you won’t know that until you try them out.

Initial calculations are an estimation, a start point, nothing more. Everyone’s actual energy expenditure will vary somewhere between plus or minus ~20% of that due genetic differences, the current state of metabolic adaptations, and NEAT variance.

We can’t calculate for these things. So a better question is, “How are these macros working for you?”

Make sure you are tracking your progress in detail so that you can then fine tune and adjust your diet from there.

• How To Track Your Progress
All Articles On Making Adjustments

TIMING vs MACROS vs CALORIES vs SUPPLEMENTS: What’s more important?

The hierarchy of importance for success is as follows:

The Pyramid Of Nutrition Priorities v1.1

What this means is that you can’t eat just ‘clean foods’ and ignore calories, you can’t supplement your way out of a bad diet, and you can’t use some special timing tricks to enable you to binge eat on the evenings.

Calorie Balance > Macros > Micros > Meal Timing > Supplements

  • If you get the macros (protein, carbs and fats) right, then the calorie balance will be right, because counting macros is just a more detailed way of counting calories. See, ‘How to Calculate your Leangains Macros‘.
  • If you eat a fist sized portion of fruit and veg with each meal, and vary your choices each day, you’ll likely have the micros covered.
  • Timing has been taken care of in the general outline.
  • Forget about supplements for now.

THE TOP 10 NUTRITION MYTHS perpetuated by the media.

High Protein Causes Kidney MythThe truth doesn’t sell well. Throw in a 24-hour news cycle, difficult-to-understand studies, and media companies scramble for the latest viral hit, and it’s no surprise that misinformation spreads like wildfire.

Myth 1: Bread/Carbs are bad for you. Gluten-free is awesome.
Myth 2: Eggs (especially egg yolks) are bad for you.
Myth 3: Red Meat causes cancer.
Myth 4: Saturated Fat is bad for you.
Myth 5: Salt causes high blood pressure and should be avoided.
Myth 6: Whole-grain bread/pasta is better than white.
Myth 7: High fructose corn syrup is worse than sugar.
Myth 8: Too much protein can cause bone and kidney damage.
Myth 9: Vitamins from food are better than supplemented vitamins.
Myth 10: Eating small meals throughout the day stokes your metabolic fire.

Details debunking all of the above over at – excellent website, run by great people. Highly recommended.

CARB SOURCES: Can I eat refined carbs, sugar, brown vs white ‘x’ etc?

Key Points:

  • As long as you don’t neglect fruit and vegetables, as long as you make your carb choices fit your macros you will not affect your diet. This is the IIFYM philosophy, more of which you can read about in the post, Is Clean Eating a Scam? – Clean Eating vs IIFYM.
  • Less refined foods will keep you fuller for longer. Potatoes are probably the most filling, followed by rice and pasta. (Something like sugary cereal will not keep you very full for long.)
  • The Glycemic Index is irrelevant in the context of a mixed food meal as digestion and absorption will be slowed. Brown vs white rice/pasta/bread is a taste issue, not something that will affect your results.

In general then, after you’ve had your fruit and veggies for the day just make sure you get most of your carbs from whole foods (pasta, rice, bread, potatoes etc…) 80% of the time and you’ll be fine. If you wish to get geekier than that then see the glucose vs. sucrose vs. fructose part of this article by Martin Berkhan.


Fine. They’re not as good as fresh veggies as they lose their nutrients over time but much better than not eating them at all (as is the way with most single men) and trying to rely on a multivitamin & mineral. Most people use frozen veg as it’s easy to prepare. However if you get a little steamer for the microwave then fresh vegetables can be cooked in just minutes also so consider that.

Microwave steamer

Microwave steamers make eating healthy easy. Just pour water in the bottom, add chopped veggies on top and then put it in the microwave for a minute or two.

WATER: How much should I be drinking?

Simply, if your urine is yellow then drink more – Five clear urinations a day is sports-nutrition expert Lyle McDonald’s guideline.

Of all the reason’s for this, the ones you care about most is that it will help you get more jacked (you’ll perform better in your workouts) and you’ll burn more fat. The liver plays an important role in fat metabolism. If you don’t drink enough water then the kidneys can’t function at full capacity and thus the liver has to work to help them, decreasing the rate which fat can be metabolised.

We lose water at night so you’ll definitely want to drink a good few glasses to re-hydrate in the morning.

Don’t set a target water intake per day as you’ll likely be over and have to wake up to go to the toilet at night, or you’ll be under and feel dehydrated (which can disturb sleep also).

Avoid Interrupted Sleep by Tapering Down Water Intake Towards The End Of The Day

If you reduce carb intake as I suggest on the days that you don’t train (and eating more carbs on the days you do), you’ll urinate more on the rest days. This is because the body takes in 3-4g of water per gram of carbs that we eat and flushes it out when we don’t. (Fluctuating water balance is why I recommend you take your weight as an average over the week.)

If you find yourself waking in the middle of the night to go to the toilet, taper your intake down towards the end of the day.

DIET SODA: Can I drink it during a morning fast? What about tea or coffee?

Yes, you can drink diet soda and it will not affect your diet despite what the Youtube videos say.

Tea and coffee contain no calories so they are fine. A splash of milk in your coffee(s) in the mornings is fine too, but don’t put sugar in there. Try and keep the total calories under 50kCal.

If you are concerned about the media hype surrounding sweeteners/aspartame etc. and health issues:

“I personally could not find any research showing a causal relationship between artificially sweetened soft drinks and weight gain, let alone research indicating a thyroid-mediated mechanism for this phenomenon. Among the research that does exist, the majority of studies lasting beyond the acute phase have demonstrated the superior effectiveness of artificially sweetened beverages to sugar-sweetened ones for weight loss. Therefore, the claim that diet soft drinks cause weight gain is nothing but a false alarm.”  – Alan Aragon, from his monthly Research Review.

ALCOHOL: Is it banned on this diet?

No, but as alcohol has calories it has the potential to screw everything up. Why? Dietary fat can be easily stored if you go over your calorie budget for the day. On the occasions that you are going to drink, some very general rules that will take you a long way:

  • Keep dietary fat intake low on this day.
  • Drinking beer? Make it a training day.
  • Drinking diet mixers and spirits? Make it a rest day.

I’ve written a guide to drinking alcohol on a diet here with details and reasons for the above.

SALT: Is high salt intake a concern?

The evidence for whether high salt intake is good or bad for health is inconclusive. However, unless you are eating a diet very high in junk food your salt intake overall is not likely to be a concern.

Changes in salt intake in the short term however can bring with them weight fluctuations.

So if you are a bodybuilder or model with a competition or shoot in a few days then you’ll want to watch your intake. Only relative changes in sodium will increase your water retention, not overall consumption. So if you suddenly increase your sodium intake you will bloat; if you suddenly decrease your sodium intake you will lose water. The body adjusts to a set-point after time. (A few days I believe.)

So bodybuilders, whom need to look extra lean on one particular day, cutting sodium two weeks before a competition to lose water is a bad strategy, because their body will have re-adjusted to a set-point by that two week mark and nothing will have changed overall.

Cutting sodium intake 2/3 days out to look extra lean is used by some competitors, but for the regular dieter salt intake manipulation is not a weight loss strategy – the human body out-smarts our diet-tricks in the end.

*I don’t recommend you mess with salt intake to look lean on any particular day anyway. Reducing intake is just as likely (if not more so) to reduce the water inside of the muscles also, leaving you looking flat.

PROTEIN POWDER: Is it ok to use?

Yes, but there is a time and a place for it.

Protein from real food (meat, fish, eggs, etc.) will keep you feeling full for longer, which is obviously a desirable thing when dieting.

Aside from satiety reasons, we want protein to be absorbed slowly so that our blood is still swimming with aminos during the fast, preventing muscle catabolism. In terms of rates of digestion, real food is slowest, then casein protein (5-7 hrs) then whey protein (2-3hrs). If we drink a protein shake as part of a meal then the digestion will be slowed significantly and could conceivably be double this (though there have been no studies that I know of that measure rates of digestion with mixed food meals).

Protein powder can be very convenient and I recommend that people get some because it helps with diet adherence on those times where you don’t quite have enough meat in the fridge and can’t be bothered to go out to the supermarket, for example.

  • Casein, being absorbed slowest is best with the last meal of the day.
  • Whey, being absorbed quickest is better with the other meals.

How much protein powder is too much? Well this is more a satiety thing than a health issue. Try to make your reliance on powders under half your protein target for the day.

Can eating TOO MUCH PROTEIN be bad for you?

Protein and the Kidneys:

  • Don’t worry about it if you have healthy kidneys and control your protein intake if you have damaged kidneys. It may be prudent to gradually increase protein intake to higher levels rather than jumping in both feet at a time, but there isn’t much on this topic.
  • It is generally recommended to consume more water during periods when protein intake is being increased. Whether or not this has biological basis is not known, but it may be prudent to do so.

Protein and the Liver

  • In healthy persons and rats, there is no evidence to suggest a relatively normal style of protein intake is harmful to the liver when habitually consumed as part of the diet. There is some preliminary evidence, however, that very high protein refeeding after prolonged fasting (>48 hours) may cause acute injuries to the liver.

Amino acids are acids, right? What about acidity?

  • Evidence is theoretically sound, but the acidity of excessive amino acids does not appear to be a clinical concern. It’s not potent enough to cause harm to most individuals.

Source and further details/references: Can eating too much protein be bad for you? –


WEIGHING FOOD: Do I need to weigh everything?

Certainly not. However you do need to weigh some things, especially at the start. As a general guide, weigh your un-cooked meats and carbs and eyeball everything else. I weigh my rice, pasta, potatoes and meats, and just look on the packets for the macronutrient information for others. Get a small electronic kitchen scale. I never weigh vegetables.

SNACKING – Can I eat between meals?

Snacking won’t make a difference to your diet as you make it fit your macros. However, it’s probably better not to as it threatens diet adherence because generally snacking just makes hunger more persistent.

Hunger pangs will come and go when dieting. Keeping busy will certainly help.

TOO FULL: As I am on a cut is it detrimental to eat less?

A lot of people that are new to dieting feels like this when they start. This usually happens because people switch to “healthier” food choices which less calorie dense/more filling, despite the drop in calorie intake overall.

Typically your stomach will adjust to the large quantity of food within two weeks. In the meantime choosing more dense carb sources (some yummy cereal for example) is a good idea. Eventually your body will catch up, it’ll recognize that you are in a calorie deficit, and you will feel a degree of hunger as a consequence. Enjoy it while it lasts.

If you eat less, your caloric deficit will be too high, you’ll burn more fat but you will risk muscle loss also.

I OVERATE yesterday, should I adjust the weekly calorie balance?

I wouldn’t unless you’re on a deadline. When we get it into our heads that we can make adjustments in the days post to correct a mistake it leads to a slippery slope subconsciously, which encourages further indulgence and jeopardises diet adherence. This is amplified whenever alcohol and is thrown into the mix due to the effect on inhibitions.

If you’ve experienced some weight gain and you’re panicking, relax, this will be mostly water from the higher carb intake and will come off in the next few days.

HUNGER PROBLEMS: Is there anything I can do?

If your caloric deficit isn’t too high, and you haven’t been already dieting for a long time (and are thus due a diet break), then the most common culprit for hunger is inappropriate food choices, particularly for the last meal before bed. Tips in order they should be tried and implemented:

  • Cut down on any alcohol intake so that you can use those calories for food.
  • Switch from shakes or liquid foods (like juice and protein powder) to real food.
  • Eat a slow-digesting protein like eggs or cottage cheese, or eat meat with plenty fibrous green vegetables.
  • Switch from refined carbohydrates to foods like potatoes or pasta for your carb sources. Potatoes tend to be the most filling and satiating, at ~15g of carbs per 100g weight raw.
  • Coffee in the morning can blunt appetite.
  • Keep busy. An idle mind will wander and think of food.
  • Put your fish oil supplementation with this last meal as fats slow digestion (a minor point).

HUNGER FEARS: Will I feel hungry in the mornings if I skip breakfast?

No, it’s just a case of your body adjusting. This whole website is littered with comments from people amazed at how they have adjusted and are feeling great. Our ancestors did this and so can you. The only difference so far is the length of time clients take to adjust. Some are fine straight away, for others it takes up to 10 days. Typically though it is 4-7 days.

SLEEP: Why is it important?

Sleep and stress elements should not be underestimated in their ability to interfere with a diet.


  • You need to get a consistent 7-9 hours sleep a night for fat loss to work well. There is individual variance – some people need more than others – ideally you should be able to wake up without an alarm.
  • Sleep deficits cannot be ‘recovered’ over the weekend with a long rest.


Lack of sleep, weight training and any other activities are stressors to the body. Work and family stresses, though psychological, have physiological consequences.

Adding in more stress to this equation by having a calorie deficit and/or increasing activity is not a good idea when the sleep and stress elements are not in place.

It can cause significant stalls in weight loss, increase moodiness, and generally ramp up all the other negative effects of dieting.

As for working with clients, these things throw a significant spanner into the works when it comes to the predictability of things. Which bugs me, because you’ll be bugging me to get the fat loss moving, and there may be a point where I’ve tried several things but my conclusion will be – get more sleep, lower stress, which as a client I can understand being a frustrating conclusion. This is why I insist that customers have those elements in place before we work together.

Doing less, can sometimes be just the thing that you need. Don’t fight gravity.

Related: Stress: In The Gym, Out of The Gym, and How it Affects Your Program and Progress

AFTERNOON NAPS: Will interrupted sleep affect fat loss?

“Healthy sleep time” as you phrase it is going to depend on the individual. Generally this is 7-9 hours of sleep for most people. You can test this by sleeping without an alarm clock for consecutive days and taking an average – it can also be argued that if you have to wake up with an alarm clock then you’re not getting enough. – Sure, not a very practical suggestion for many, but true.

Type of Sleep

  • Sleep needs to be the deep, restorative kind.
  • So, broken up sleep (afternoon naps) aren’t ideal.
  • Sleep with distractions for your brain (TV on, people coming and going, neighbours lawnmower going next door)… isn’t ideal.
  • Sleeping at completely different times will mess with your body’s hormonal patterns and isn’t ideal.

The above is why shift workers constantly look knackered.

So what about fat loss then?

Well, there was this one study, two groups of people, both in calorie deficit conditions. One group got ~8.5 hours  sleep a night, the other group were allowed just ~5.5 hours sleep a night. Both groups lost the same amount of weight, but the sleep deprived group lost ~50% less fat. (They lost more muscle mass.)  The take home point is – sleep, the deep, uninterrupted kind is important for fat loss.

Sleep requirements are variable

  • On mentally and physically draining days you’ll need more.
  • When starting a training program, people find they need more.
  • Increase workout intensity and you’ll likely need more.
  • When cutting, people generally find they need more also. (The energy deficit is a recovery deficit and the body seems to want to compensate somewhat with sleep.)

Fortunately the readers of my ramblings on this blog tend to be quite an educated bunch, so I’m sure someone will correct me on my mistakes above. If/when they do I’ll come back and correct this.

MEAL FREQUENCY: Can I eat 4 meals instead of 2 or 3?

Absolutely. This is covered in my complete set-up guide, in the fourth section.

TIMING MISTAKES: I ate lunch a little later today, should I adjust the fasting window?

No. The key here is consistency. Just because you miss one meal time, doesn’t mean you adjust the other. Your hormones get used to when you usually eat, so eat as close as possible to that time. Keep things as regular as possible, but don’t stress the occasional day when timing is off.

IRREGULAR SCHEDULE: How do I go about setting up meal timing and training?

Detailed guide here.

SUPPLEMENTS: What about them?

Supplements are covered in section 5 of my complete diet set-up guide.

CREATINE: Types, Dosing and Timing

Creatine is the most scientifically significant supplement of the past thirty years. Despite having been studied to death there’s a lot of nonsense out there regarding the timing, dosing and types.

It’s safe for most people, has neuroprotective properties and can improve strength and performance.


There are many types of creatine on sale, don’t get sucked into the marketing hype. Get the standard Creatine Monohydrate. Other types of creatine cost more but don’t work any better, and many are inferior.


Timing doesn’t matter. It doesn’t need to be taken with carbs, pre or post workout, and doesn’t need to be ‘loaded’.


5g a day is fine. Sure, you could do a lean body mass calculation and get more specific but it’s so cheap it doesn’t matter in terms of cost, you’ll piss out any you don’t use so you don’t have to worry about overdosing, and let’s face it, are you really going to weigh out 4.2g of the stuff each time when you can just use a teaspoon?

Don’t fall into the trap of thinking more is better, more just means fairly sudden diarrhoea and brown pants.


Creatine can cause water weight gains. It can take up to 30 days for creatine to take full effect. For this reason I don’t recommend someone who is starting a diet to start (or stop) taking creatine because it can throw off your tracking. Tracking is important. Definitely do not change course of action half way through.

Full supplements guide here.

BCAAs: Should I count them towards my total protein intake target for the day?

No. The calorie content is minimal, the amino acid profile limited, they can’t be considered the same.

EATING OUT: Any tips?

Based on your experience cooking things at home you can get to have a good idea of what is in meals in restaurants. – You just eyeball things as best that you can, comparing portions to the size of your palm, thumb, fist etc. You will get better at it this over time. This can never be perfect though, but I don’t see that it has to be. – For those times when you eat out, choose meat and veggies on the rest days and leave the carbs (generally speaking – unless it would be rude or awkward) and you go for lean-meat, veggies and carbs on the training days.

There is an app called Fudist that supposedly has most chain restaurant foods listed up. I haven’t used it so I can’t vouch for the accuracy (it’s US based, I live in Japan), but the creator was very enthusiastic in pitching it to me at a conference earlier this year (2015). Up to you, just throwing it out as an option.

FEEL WEAK: I’m feeling unusually run down. What’s up with me?

Stress the same and sleep has been fine? You’ve probably caught a cold but haven’t experienced the more obvious symptoms yet. This is a very common question. Stay out of the gym until you feel better.


Sure, see my guide, ‘How to simplify macro counting for your diet‘.

CHEAT DAYS: Do you recommend them?

“Cheat day” is an abused and misunderstood term. Some people take it to mean, “eat anything that you want” which was not the original intention. I believe the term was originally coined to describe the days where a large quantity of carbs would be strategically consumed after a period of severe restriction in Lyle McDonald’s Cyclic Ketogenic Diet. This was then jumped on and abused. A better term for this would be a ‘refeed’, which is something that is done every training day with the leangains method.

I recommend periodic diet breaks, free-meals (where the calorie intake is the same, but macros are ignored), and a relaxed attitude to counting macros, but I don’t see cheat days as being part of your diet. You can easily wipe out an entire week’s deficit in one day of binge eating.

Why aren’t you a fan of MACRO CALCULATORS?

Though macro calculators can be a good start point for people, I see a lot of folks really mess things up by using them. An understanding of the principles involved is essential to getting things right for you. There is not, and can never be, a single one size fits all formula.

An understanding of the principles is needed to get things in the right ballpark initially. From there you’ll track and adjust.

You can get access to my own macro calculator here, but be sure to read the guide that comes with it.

What is the best MACRO RATIO?

There isn’t one. See my article, ‘The Myth of the ‘Best’ Macro Ratio‘.

Should I CUT or SLOW-BULK?

This is a good question. Let’s assume that your end goal is to get ripped abs; do you have enough muscle mass currently so that if you cut off the fat you’ll have the physique you desire? Have a look at this comparison picture of Christian Bale at approximately the same body fat but a very different base to see what I mean.

Christian Bale's Body - Machinist vs American Psycho

If you haven’t lifted before then your best bet is probably to focus on gaining strength to build your base. You’ll get a fat burning effect as well as build muscle. For those with lifting experience that are on the fence about what to do, check out this three part guide:

Physique Goal Setting – The 9 Categories of Trainee: Their Mistakes, How to Avoid Them, and What You Can Achieve When You Get Things Right (Pt.1of3)

PALEO: I follow the Paleo diet. What should I do about carb sources?

I feel the Paleo diet, while the principles can certainly work for weight loss with people that don’t wish to count calories, is overly restrictive in general, and thus threatens long term diet adherence for most people.

You can most certainly be successful and still follow your Paleo diet, but you need to hit your carb numbers for the day. Fruits, rice, sweet or regular potatoes. If you’re lifting heavy then you need to get your carbs in.

FIBER: How Much Do I Need?

General Daily Fibre Intake Guidelines:

  • Minimum –  20g/25g for women and men respectively.
  • Maximum – 20% of your carb intake.

Further Reading: Fibre – Nature’s Broom by Lyle McDonald. Why is it important?

  • Increases food volume without increasing caloric content, providing satiety which may reduce appetite.
  • Attracts water and forms a viscous gel during digestion, slowing the emptying of the stomach and intestinal transit, shielding carbohydrates from enzymes, and delaying absorption of glucose,[62] which lowers variance in blood sugar levels
  • Lowers total and LDL cholesterol, which may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease
  • Regulates blood sugar, which may reduce glucose and insulin levels in diabetic patients and may lower risk of diabetes[63]
  • Speeds the passage of foods through the digestive system, which facilitates regular defecation
  • Adds bulk to the stool, which alleviates constipation
  • Balances intestinal pH[64] and stimulates intestinal fermentation production of short-chain fatty acids, which may reduce risk of colorectal cancer

Source: Wikipedia, “Dietary Fiber”

Clearly then fiber is a good thing. However, it’s also possible to have too much, the side effects being gas, diarrhoea, constipation and bloating*. Keep between the above numbers and you’ll be fine.

Why do sudden changes in weight happen?

I’ve covered this in a special section here.

About The Site

Why is this site free?

Though the vast majority of people use the guides to be successful on their own, a small percentage of readers choose to hire me – this pays the server fees, keeps me in fresh underwear, puts food on the table, and allows me to keep doing what I love.

Arguably I don’t need to keep writing and updating the site anymore as I get more than enough coaching applicants. However, I get great pleasure knowing that the site helps people steer clear from the charlatans in the fitness industry that are simply after our money – this sense of job satisfaction and meaning is worth something far more to me than simply a higher bank balance. Plus, the goodwill has built up a lot of beer credits around the world. :)

I choose not to fill the site with advertising as I feel it would just compromise credibility and undermine all the hard work.

Why “.jp”? / How did you end up living in Japan?

I’m British but I have lived in Japan for the last ten years. I created the site because I was fed up with seeing people get ripped off here and wanted to do something about it.

The site was originally written in both Japanese and English, however at some point I figured out that nobody here understood the meaning of “ripped”, so I dropped Japanese from this site and made, which we’ve built into Japan’s most popular fitness site. You can read more about that story here: ‘Don’t Make It About The Money‘.

I’ve written my personal story of how I came to live here in the article, ‘Funny’ Things That Brought Me To Japan.

Why does the advice I read on your site differ from that of [coach X]?

  1. I could be wrong. Probably safer to assume that I am, this is how I go about things. I just do my best to be right more often than I am now, and be open to altering my opinion when I receive new information.
  2. There are many ways to go about getting the same results. This doesn’t make one way better or worse than another, just different.

I am not here to critique or judge other people’s methods, though I am flattered that many people hold me in high enough regard to ask. It’s simply a game with no end point. The mind is a powerful tool. How we think and that which we think of affects us, and I don’t want to get sucked into a negative thought spiral. I’m here instead to offer action points, solutions, guides, positive steps for people to take. Just be careful of people that try to sell you on complication, which is sexier than simple, but shouldn’t automatically be assumed to be better.

Why do you update the site guides so often?

Whether good or bad, there is barely a day goes by that I don’t fiddle with things to make an incremental improvement. The site gets a lot of readers, I need to be careful about the information I put out, so I make updates as I learn and develop as a coach.

Also I’ll admit that I’m completely addicted to it and I want to show my best work always. This is true of the information I give to clients also.

This is why you don’t see any dates on the content, it’s not getting old, it’s evolving with time.

Is this site relevant to women?

The site is written with men in mind, based on my experience coaching men. While a large part of the information on it has relevant crossover elements to the female population, it is not a site targeted at female trainees, nor does it cover any of their specific issues.

I don’t believe it’s possible to make additions or clarifications in a simple way to make it more applicable, without muddling the content considerably, so I have no plans to do so. I’m sticking to what I know best because that is the only way to create something that is ‘stand-out’ great.

Plenty of women have used the site to help them though. I believe the readership is something like a 75/25 split in favor of men.

Training Questions

MUSCLE LOSS/GAIN: Does strength correlate to muscle mass?

Not necessarily.

1. For experienced trainees, strength increases or decreases roughly correlate to gains or losses of muscle mass respectively. However mechanical efficiency also needs to be considered. The leaner we are, the less mechanical advantage we’ll have for the big compound lifts. This is easiest to picture with the bench press. As fat is lost on the chest and back the bar has to travel further, thus the work done to perform the rep is greater for the same weight. A decrease from say, 100kg x 8reps in the bench press, to 100kg x 4reps in the bench press doesn’t necessarily indicate a reduction in muscle mass. The opposite is true as you get fatter.

2. For beginners, there are gains in strength that will occur from neurological adaptation.

3. A period of time off lifting can lead to strength losses, but usually strength is regained quickly. A week after a two-three week vacation you may be a little weaker in your workout, but you’ll quickly get back up to speed. I think this is due to neurological reasons.

SMITH MACHINE: Can I use it?

A smith machine looks like a barbell on stabilisation rails. You don’t ride a bike with trainer wheels, and to get the right training effect you don’t want to squat with them either.

From the Starting Strength website:

  • It completely removes the stabilization aspect of the squat. Try 300 on a smith machine then try it with a barbell and see how long you can keep from falling on your ass.
  • It restricts the natural range of motion. See each of us has our own biomechanics (the mechanisms that distinctly tie our individual bones and muscles together) and hence we have an individual movement pattern (range of motion) when doing the squat, or anything else for that matter. For example a guy with a long torso and stocky legs will not squat remotely close to how guy with a short torso and long legs does. The smith machine has only one range of motion for either of these individuals because the bar runs on rails in a fixed path (straight up and down or a slight diagonal). Every individual must conform to no matter their distinct movement pattern. This can be devastating to your skeletal system over time.”

“Squatting” in a Smith machine is an oxymoron. A squat cannot be performed on a Smith machine, as should be obvious from all previous discussion. Sorry. There is a gigantic difference between a machine that makes the bar path vertical, and a squat that is executed correctly enough to have a vertical bar path. Muscle and skeleton should do the job of keeping the bar path vertical, not grease fittings and floor bolts.– MARK RIPPETOE

WARM UP: What should I do?

A warm-up serves to get you ready for the work you’re about to do. You’ll be able to lift more and it reduces your chances of injury. Regardless of the routine, you’ll want to do the minimum that you can to get warm and ready for the top set, without tiring yourself for your main work sets.

  1. A few minutes of foam rolling to loosen up tight places.
  2. A few minutes on the treadmill to raise your body temperature if it’s still low.
  3. Then a few practice sets of the exercise you’re about to perform to get the mind-muscle connection going.

Always start with the bar. Perform the warm-up reps as you would your heaviest set. Take it very seriously, you’re preparing your nervous system and motor function for the big set. I usually do 3-4 warm-up sets, but do as many as it takes to feel comfortable. Do a few reps (e.g. 5-6) working up to about 80% of your top-set weight. Then have 3 minutes rest before the top-set.


(Bar x5) x5 sets, 40% x5, 60% x5, (70% x 3), 80% x2, 3 minutes rest then do the top set. – Warmed-up but not tired.

CONSECUTIVE TRAINING DAYS: Is it ok to train two/three days in a row?

In the context of dieting (a caloric deficit) it is usually a good idea to have a day of rest between sessions at least. Recovery is important. If you fail to recover you’ll over-burden the already taxed central nervous system (because of the energy deficit), and you’ll ramp up stress levels. Stress affects your fat loss efforts.

I’ll note that there are individuals for whom this is not relevant, but they are not asking this question in the first place.

STRENGTH DROP! What should I do?

It’s probably fine, just a bad training session. Here is a guide and check list.

CHIN-UPs: How do I progress with chin ups?

I’ve written a full progression guide (from rank beginner through to advanced trainee), guidelines for good technique and  listed common mistakes and considerations for long-term joint health here:

•  A Full Guide To Progressing Your Chin-ups

ACCESSORY EXERCISES: When should I add them?

What are your thoughts on accessory exercises for calves/biceps/triceps/abs/lower back?

Generally, I keep these to a minimum when people are cutting.

I see accessory work as being divided into two broad categories –

  1. That which is specific and targeted to improving the main compound lifts. (Mimics the action in some way e.g. for the deadlift they would be – Shrugs, Racked DL’s, GHR, Good Mornings)
  2. That which is for vanity/hypertrophy.

Getting strong in the compound lifts should always be prioritized.

When cutting: accessory work type 1 isn’t needed, and too much type 2 can be detrimental.

When bulking: if the main lifts are improving then there is no need for type 1 work. Type 2 work can be added as long as the main lifts are going up.

Often, assuming the correct training intensity, commitment and all the other obvious pieces of the puzzle being in place, lack of progress in the main barbell lifts does not necessarily mean that the trainee has reached the point where they need to add in type 1 work, they merely need to eat more, or drop the type 2 work.

SKIPPED SESSIONS: How should I adjust?

If it’s just the one skipped session then you can just eat your rest day macros. If you’re missing 2 or 3, then it’s probably worth eating your “average macros” (meaning the average of the two days’ numbers) as otherwise the weekly deficit may work out to be a little too high*. (*It was for this reason that I previously advised that people continue cycling their macros as normal despite skipping a session.)

CARDIO: Should I do it?

In the context of fat loss, in the majority of cases the answer is no. See my article, ‘On Cardio for the Physique-Focused Trainee‘.

ENDURANCE TRAINING: How would this affect things?

I am not against anyone wanting to enter a marathon or challenging themselves in an endurance event. I would love to do one myself one day. Training like this however can severely hinder your strength (and thus muscle) gains. Whether you decide to do this then will depend on your main goal.

  • Strength/ muscle gain? – You don’t want to be doing it for reasons explained very well here.
  • Get a good marathon time? – Do it.

SORENESS: I don’t feel sore the next day, should I do more?

No, just increase the weight. It is a common mistake to train to be sore the following day, and can actually stall progress due to hindering recovery.

So why is muscle soreness (DOMS) not an end goal in itself after working out?

Remember the ab-belts that sent electronic pulses to your abs to tone you up in the ’90s? People thought that because it made you sore, it built your muscles. This has long ago been debunked.

You can get rock solid abs from Squatting and Deadlifting due to the isometric contraction to stabilize and take direct pressure off the spine, yet your abs won’t feel sore the next day. Do sit-ups and you’ll get very sore. It’s the eccentric contractions that make you sore.

I feel the same when I see people screw around with tricep-kickbacks and think they work because their arms hurt the next day (DOMS). If I stabbed them in the leg, they’d expect to have pain when walking downstairs in the morning but they wouldn’t expect bigger muscles right? I promise you now, you’ll never see a guy that made big arms using triceps-kickbacks.

Excluding the initial period of neuromuscular adaptation, if you progress with your poundages, for the same number of reps, under the same conditions (rest time between sets, etc.), you’re gaining muscle. Period.

Don’t train for pain for pain’s sake.

INJURY / PAIN: What should I do? What exercises do you recommend?

I can’t give recommendations here. You need to seek your doctor’s advice. Make sure it is a specialist sports doctor/ physiotherapist that knows what they are doing.

You need to ask about a plan of recovery and rehabilitation if necessary, in the context of your overall training plan. You need to get specifics on what you can and can’t do.

I’m not a rehab specialist, nor doctor, and I can’t give advice online effectively even if I was.

It’s all too easy to just train around the pain and think it will be ok while not addressing the underlying issue. Two things that need to be considered other than the above moving forward:

  1. Was it a form issue that caused the injury? or,
  2. Was it a previous injury that just came up to bite you in the ass this time?

For the former, when you are healthy again get someone to have a look at your form and see if they can see any issue. If no-one is available then video yourself and compare with the form used in the instructional videos I have linked to on the homepage (right sidebar, at the bottom).

The body is a complicated machine. If there is one thing I have learned over the years through injuring myself doing silly things it’s that the pain you feel is only an issue with that area half of the time. Recent examples of my own to highlight this:

Knee pain – tight foot arches. Stretch Elbow pain – grip being over-trained – cut down on grip work. Shoulder pain – scapula movement problem – retrain to move correctly, very complicated. Lower-right back pain – long-term anterior pelvic tilt & left ribs tilting upward – retrain breathing & posture, paying special attention when training. Training program revamped by Eric Cressey and Tony Gentilcore. Very complicated.

The take home point it this folks – don’t guess, see a pro. Get them to advise you on moving forward. If you are cutting currently, ask them if you are fine to be in a calorie deficit or whether it will be detrimental. If the latter then take a diet break.

BODY TYPES: Should training vary depending on body type?

Some people are more prone to gaining muscle. Some aren’t. That’s the genetic lottery. I’m not one of the lucky ones either. I don’t buy into the idea that there are three distinct body types. Some people can get away with less focussed training than others; most people need to train focusing on programmed strength increases. I don’t think that there is a need to separate training programs for hardgainers and gifted folks.

Should I train with a BELT?

There is never a need for a belt, but belts can be helpful to a lifter.

Beginners, even advanced beginners will do well to stay away from belts, as it forces them to train with good form. Whenever I try a new technique (front squats onto a box recently for example) I am sure to not use a belt to help make sure I don’t / can’t mess up my form.

The argument for belt use is to increase intra-abdominal pressure to help manage heavier loads, to train the abs harder and thus aid more growth overall. But if a belt is used too early on in someone’s training career it can do more long-term harm than good, because it allow us to lift more weight than we should while masking poor form, which can lead to injuries as the weights increase.

  • Beginners should never use a belt.
  • Novices (a little training experience but still new to lifting) need to practice their form too, so don’t use a belt.
  • Intermediate lifter. – You may use a belt.
  • That grey one between being a novice and an intermediate lifter? – Use your best judgement.

How do I know if I’m a beginner or…?

Everyone has their own starting point and genetics. Some will smash out 300b squats in their first day in the gym, others will start at 100lbs. Do yourself a favour and try not to have a big ego on this one. – If in doubt, do without.

A full breakdown on belts is covered in this article by my colleague Greg Nuckols, ‘The Belt Bible‘.

Why do you prefer BARBELLS OVER BODYWEIGHT workouts?

Bodyweight workouts can be effective, but in general there are too many ways for the untrained & unguided beginner to do them wrong.

We’ve all got friends that have played around with bodyweight routines at home, but how many of those people do you see real physical change in? A lot of movement that hasn’t translated into strength suggests that many of those workouts were tantamount to flapping the arms around aimlessly, they simply haven’t realised it yet. This certainly wasn’t for lack of effort or good will (in most cases), but the curious part of human nature is that many would prefer quit and blame their body than admit they need to change things up.

Too much focus on things that don’t matter, too little focus on things that do. The fix in many cases is re-focus or start focusing on barbell strength work.

You can cheat yourself out of a good training effect on a lot of exercises, but not barbell work.

Let’s take pushups for example – potentially a brilliant chest as well as shoulder stability exercise, but the way most people perform and progress with them renders them (almost) useless. (The rep range goes up rather than the intensity increasing, the neck creeps forward and rep range shorter, the reps quicken, back arches… sound familiar? I’ve done it, we’ve nearly all done it.)

This is why, if you are new to training, and don’t have someone to show you how to train effectively, I strongly suggest you make barbells your staple. Well, that’s one big reason anyway. For a more in-depth explanation see Why Barbells Are Best.

Q: So what about the home workouts I keep seeing then on Youtube?

The people showing you these “easy home workouts” have actually built their body doing the basic movements. Then they try to present you a shortcut to get their physique. These pseudo-experts take advantage of the fact that you trust in them just because of the way they look. What it comes down to is that there are three reasons why someone looks muscular:

  • They either achieved progressive overload doing the basic movements,
  • They used drugs,
  • They have amazing genetics.

With these pseudo-experts it’s usually a combination of all three, then they present themselves with their shirt off in every video. – Jonnie Candito


I believe barbells are going to give you the best result. However, I appreciate that some people can’t get to a gym and don’t have the space (or budget) for a full set at home. Enter the often asked question about bodyweight work…

Is it possible to get an effective workout exclusively from bodyweight work? Yes absolutely, and when you’re away without gym access I would definitely suggest it. However, when it comes to an effective training program there needs to be progressive overload, and that can quickly become difficult as one becomes stronger, especially for the back and legs. So in the following example I’ve assumed you won’t mind buying a few cheap pieces of equipment as you get stronger.

Example Home Workout:

  • Warm up
  • Chin-ups – 3×6-10 Resistance bands to help, a belt and weight added in future to add resistance.
  • Push-ups – 3×8-12 Slow and controlled. 2 seconds up, 2 seconds down. Adjust the foot height to help or progress intensity accordingly.
  • Goblet Style Squats 3×12 With a dumbbell or weight plate or sandbag clutched to the chest.
  • One leg pistol squats 3xX* – Work into these slowly and only if you are strong enough. The Goblet squats will help build strength. Rep target is whatever you can get but no more than 8 per leg and stay well away from form failure to keep your knee ligaments safe.
  • Dips 3×8-12 – Perhaps between two very study chairs. Again, a belt and weight added in future to add resistance.
  • Kettlebell / Dumbbell swings – 10-12kg (~25lbs) is probably a good starting point.

Always use good form. If in doubt, video yourself and compare with videos online or ask a trainer in person.


For the above you’ll need a chin-up bar (which you can attach between a door frame), a lifting belt that you can add weight to, weight plates, and a dumbbell / kettlebell. – Not too expensive overall, especially if you get second-hand weight plates.

Bodyweight work can be very good and effective when done properly. However one huge problem when recommending bodyweight work to people is that, as is the human condition, we have a tendency to cheat. Usually this will be either through poor form, or rep speed, which at the end of the day only cheats ourselves of an effective workout.

(Push-ups are a classic culprit. I used to do 40-50 rapid fire pushups and think I was tough. But as the set progressed the rep length got shorter, my back caved, and my chest didn’t change as a result. Why? Poor form and the wrong rep range for hypertrophy.)

The effective range for hypertrophy is somewhere between 8-12 reps: below this puts more focus on strength; above more on muscle endurance. With bodyweight workouts it’s more difficult to adjust the difficulty so try and keep within the range 5-15 with bodyweight work.

When traveling you won’t have your weight plates/belt available. Increase the intensity in this situation by slowing down the rep speed.

Clearly the above is not an exhaustive list. There are a huge variety of bodyweight exercises that can be performed and with their variations they number in the hundreds. Apply the principles above and you’ll be fine.


If you think this as a full blog post would be useful, as well as videos, then leave a comment and let me know and I’ll make the videos in the coming weeks.

BAR HEIGHT: How high should the bar be for a deadlift?

The bar should be around 8.5″/21cm off the floor. This is the standard height when loaded with 45lb/20kg plates, this will make 135lbs/60kg total.

Deadlift bar height sketch

Beginners will likely need to use less weight for the first few workouts. This means smaller plates and a lower bar height (unless olympic plates are available). Beginners are also more likely to round their backs and have flexibility issues when starting, so make sure that you adjust the height by either putting padding or other weight plates under either side, until you can lift 135lbs/60kg.

FREQUENCY: I’m doing well with 3 days at the gym, surely 6 will double my results?

No. That’s not how the body works. You need to have an appropriate training volume to allow yourself to progress. The more advanced you get, the more training volume you will need each week, and to get enough quality training work in, you’ll need to increase the number of days that you train each week. Do as much as you need to progress, not as much as you possibly can.

LADIES TRAINING: What should I do?

Pretty much exactly the same as men.

TEMPO: What tempo should I lift with?

This is not something that we need to worry about. Lift a heavy weight in the right way and tempo takes care of itself.

Perform the concentric action (lifting the weight or pushing it) as explosively as you can while maintaining good form. Do the opposite action (the eccentric action) under control – this will be a little slower.

  • With the Deadlift: pick the bar up with as much force as you can, then lower it quickly but under control.
  • With the Bench: lower the bar under control, then explode up, making sure to not let the momentum of the bar pull your scapula out of position at the top. (Generally not an issue with heavy weights but something to be aware of.)
  • With the Squat: lower yourself slowly and with good form, and then when you reach depth and feel that pull in the hamstrings, explode up.

Again, this is all with good form.

Though the feeling you want to lift with is ‘exploding’ or ‘pushing the bar with all your might’, the bar won’t actually move that fast with a heavy weight. Tempo and lifting cadences thus take care of themselves.

The beginner just wants to think about lifting the weight with good form and doesn’t need to worry about any of this for now. They will naturally make the transition to the above way of doing things as you push to lift more and more weight.

LOADING INCREMENTS: Why don’t you like fixed loading plans?

I’ve covered this here.

GENETIC POTENTIAL: How much muscle can I grow?

I’ve covered this here: Maximum Genetic Muscular Potential – The Models And Their Limitations.